Corrosion of Wastewater Infrastructure
An estimated 240,000 water mains break each year. How these two things related? Steel pipe definitely the answer!
An estimated 240,000 water mains break each year. The nation’s pipes are in such bad shape, says the Environmental Protection Agency, that it will take $650 billion to repair them all.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports conclude that the costs to repair or replace pipes, equipment and structures deteriorated by H2S corrosion may exceed the cost several times over to control the corrosion and avoid infrastructure damage. Nationally, the cost to repair corrosion damage by H2S is in the billions of dollars, and many communities will spend millions of dollars in coming years to correct corrosion problems.
Corrosion caused by H2S?
H2S is an odorous, toxic gas. So why does H2S exist in the Wastewater steel pipes? In the absence of dissolved oxygen and in the presence of soluble biological oxygen demand, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and other sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) convert the sulfate to sulfide. Sulfate is biologically reduced to sulfide in the sewer biofilm, which accumulates on steel pipe walls and in wet wells. As wastewater is transported, sewage velocity, wastewater characteristics, detention time and temperature provide dissolved oxygen such that the concentrations of organic material and nutrients increase the rate of sulfide generation.
H2S corrosion can be caused by acid attacking which resulting from the biological conversion of H2S gas to sulfuric acid in the presence of moisture and direct chemical reaction with metals. this is the main cause of internal sewer corrosion.
Each year, there are many municipal workers’ deaths caused by exposure to H2S gas in confined spaces. Odor complaints result from neighbors living near wastewater systems who are exposed to low levels of the gas. Atmospheric H2S levels can be reduced by controlling the amount of dissolved sulfide available in the wastewater.
Corrosion of Wastewater Infrastructure cost much money but it is worth to do since we need restoring rivers to revitalize our cities. Water is important especially clean water! Urban river restoration – the process of using already existing resources to improve local ecologies and economiesis – is a growing trend in waterfront cities. “Returning the rapids to the Grand Rapids River is really quite exciting,” said Fred Keller of the River Restoration Committee. “There’s good indication there will be people willing to support that.”
The Grand River is Michigan’s longest river, stretching 252 miles from Lake Michigan to Hillsdale County, in the center of the state. It’s been over a century since the Grand River, which snakes through the downtown of the northwestern Michigan city, had actual rapids. Last month, the river was one of 11 cities added to the Urban Waters Federal Partnership. It is an EPA program designed to restore urban waterways, support local businesses, increase recreation and protect Americans’ health.
Restoring the rapids to the Grand River will be an important catalyst for the continued revitalization of the region’s downtown, said by Former Mayor Heartwell. Unfortunately, Early estimates were restoration of the Grand River would cost about $30 million, however, it seems will cost more than that. Another important issue is that the project will impact people and activities all up and down the river, not just in downtown.
Grand Rapids Whitewater envisions the river without the man-made fish ladder or dams but with natural elements like boulders to create currents and promote kayaking, rafting, and fishing. Other enhancements would occur up and down the banks, all aimed at making the most out of the city’s most important natural asset. Restoring Rivers is a big, involved process that could take decades. As said before, it is a huge program that worth everything.
Many experts believe that is a smart way to develop cities in theory. It’s green space that can be used for recreation. And with the right zoning, small businesses dotted along the water. If each municipality is smart, they can get public schools involved in water sports in the spring and early fall. It’s really a three-pronged approach to development which not just some big gleaming office tower or outdoor mall but provide opportunities for retail, restaurants and the recreation economy.
Proponents of the Grand River restoration hope that it will, as Muller suggested, it will spur economic development downtown since it will bring tourists and increase the number of restaurants and bars in downtown Grand Rapids. Also it will bring much more jobs for the local people with good wages, even for those who may not have attended college or do have a degree and are struggling to find work in their field.
According to the Wall Street Journal, the city’s downtown development authority has raised over $100,000 and other private funders have backed it as well. But that’s well short of the proposed budget. Muller said the exact financing is still being worked out, but cited the area’s fervent philanthropy as a harbinger of success. He believed that a significant amount of money will come from foundations and private individuals. he said, “It’s really hard to say what this will be. It’s probably, maybe, a quarter federal and then a portion of maybe some state funds or grants and then the rest of it foundational support.”